martedì 6 giugno 2017

Letteratura e intraducibilità: la lingua del Finnegans wake

Letteratura e intraducibilità: l’eterno dilemma.
David Foster Wallace sosteneva che fosse impossibile tradurre fedelmente le sue opere in un’altra lingua. Per James Joyce, invece, che di certo non scriveva in modo più semplice, non esisteva niente che non potesse essere tradotto, tanto che cercò di commissionare all’amico e critico Nino Frank la versione italiana dell’ultimo capitolo del Finnegans Wake.

Nonostante la perentorietà della posizione del loro autore, i libri di David Foster Wallace sono oggi letti e conosciuti in ogni angolo del mondo civilizzato, mentre una sorte diversa è toccata al padre dell’Ulisse, che non lesse mai il Finnegans in italiano. La pubblicazione, iniziata negli anni Ottanta a cura di Luigi Schenoni, è stata interrotta nel 2008 per via della scomparsa di quest’ultimo e, dopo quasi dieci anni, è stata affidata a Enrico Terrinoni (che si era già occupato dell’Ulisse per Newton Compton) e a Fabio Pedone: il Libro III 1-2 è così stato dato alle stampe lo scorso 17 gennaio. Nella prima pagina, l’editore Mondadori annuncia che la pubblicazione del Finnegans sarà ultimata il 4 maggio 2019 con l’uscita, nello stesso volume, del Libro III 3-4 e del Libro IV 1.
La difficoltà che presenta un’opera come Finnegans wake, probabilmente la più complessa che esista, ha messo a dura prova i suoi curatori: la lingua, ci spiegano, è quasi totalmente inventata perché originata da una miscela di altre lingue, e la traduzione è resa più impervia dai riferimenti al folclore e all’attualità dell’autore che sono oggi difficili da rintracciare  lo stesso titolo richiama una ballata di metà Ottocento. Joyce voleva rompere con la tradizione del romanzo realista e col principio di verosimiglianza, dimostrando che non è possibile riprodurre la realtà: per questo motivo destruttura la parola, smontandone e riasseblandone delle parti, estrapola “pezzi di scrittura” da giornali e canzonette e diventa a sua volta un “masticatore”. L’esito è comico – e questo era l’intento di Joyce, che lungi dal voler comporre un vacuo esercizio stilistico mette il lettore al centro, dandogli libertà di interpretazione.

Non è importante, cioè, quel che Joyce scrive ma quello che il lettore capisce, e non ne esiste una versione sbagliata.

È la liberazione dal ventriloquismo: non siamo più portavoce di parole altrui, in un cortocircuito semantico tra ciò che vogliamo dire e ciò che riusciamo a dire, ma protagonisti di un linguaggio che si autogenera, creato e fagocitato sul momento, pronto a essere rimaneggiato dal lettore e risputato ogni volta in modo inedito. Non a caso, la ballata che dà titolo al Finnegans celebra il mito della rigenerazione.

Tutto questo asseconda un principio “democratico” attraverso il quale Joyce intendeva restituire la lingua al popolo: lui, irlandese ma internazionalista – vissuto tra Italia, Francia e Svizzera – era infatti insofferente all’imposizione dell'inglese attuata nel suo paese. La profonda modernità del Finnegans consiste quindi nella volontà di dare nuova voce agli esclusi e a coloro che hanno subìto una prevaricazione, grazie alla riappropriazione del linguaggio.

Ma non solo: per quanto l’aspetto ludico sia prominente, il linguaggio è un gioco molto serio. Finnegans wake insegna, ancora oggi, a notare le connessioni e a vedere i collegamenti più improbabili tra le singole parole e la cabala, la numerologia, la sapienza neoplatonica – argomenti di cui Joyce era appassionato. L’erudizione in lui si accompagnava a un gusto tanto marcato per i riferimenti più immaginifici che non fatichiamo a immaginarlo come un nerd dei nostri tempi, molto colto e molto sofisticato, ma non per questo meno immerso nella cultura pop.
La mastodontica opera di traduzione di Pedone e Terrinoni ci restituisce adesso il piacere di leggerlo nella sua intelligibilità, dando spazio a una dimensione che ci è molto più vicina di quanto possa sembrare.

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